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ECMAScript 6 Documentation

Disclaimer: All of the information below is provided from the W3Schools section for ECMAScript 6

What is ECMAScript 6?

ECMAScript 6 is also known as ES6 and ECMAScript 2015.

Some people call it JavaScript 6.

This documentation page will introduce some of the new features in ES6.

  • JavaScript let
  • JavaScript const
  • JavaScript Arrow Functions
  • JavaScript Classes
  • Default parameter values
  • Array.find()
  • Array.findIndex()
  • Exponentiation (**) (EcmaScript 2016)

Browser Support for ES6

JavaScript let

The let statement allows you to declare a variable with block scope.

Example

var x = 10;
// Here x is 10
{
  let x = 2;
  // Here x is 2
}
// Here x is 10

JavaScript const

The const statement allows you to declare a constant (a JavaScript variable with a constant value).

Constants are similar to let variables, except that the value cannot be changed.

Example

var x = 10;
// Here x is 10
{
  const x = 2;
  // Here x is 2
}
// Here x is 10

Arrow Functions

Arrow functions allows a short syntax for writing function expressions.

You don't need the function keyword, the return keyword, and the curly brackets.

Example

// ES5
var x = function(x, y) {
  return x * y;
}

// ES6
const x = (x, y) => x * y;

Arrow functions do not have their own this. They are not well suited for defining object methods.

Arrow functions are not hoisted. They must be defined before they are used.

Using const is safer than using var, because a function expression is always constant value.

You can only omit the return keyword and the curly brackets if the function is a single statement. Because of this, it might be a good habit to always keep them:

Example

const x = (x, y) => { return x * y };

Classes

ES6 introduced classes.

A class is a type of function, but instead of using the keyword function to initiate it, we use the keyword class, and the properties are assigned inside a constructor() method.

Use the keyword class to create a class, and always add a constructor method.

The constructor method is called each time the class object is initialized.

Example

A simple class definition for a class named "Car":

class Car {
  constructor(brand) {
    this.carname = brand;
  }
}

Now you can create objects using the Car class:

Example

Create an object called "mycar" based on the Car class:

class Car {
  constructor(brand) {
    this.carname = brand;
  }
}
mycar = new Car("Ford");

Default Parameter Values

ES6 allows function parameters to have default values.

Example

function myFunction(x, y = 10) {
  // y is 10 if not passed or undefined
  return x + y;
}
myFunction(5); // will return 15

Array.find()

The find() method returns the value of the first array element that passes a test function.

This example finds (returns the value of ) the first element that is larger than 18:

Example

var numbers = [4, 9, 16, 25, 29];
var first = numbers.find(myFunction);

function myFunction(value, index, array) {
  return value > 18;
}

Note that the function takes 3 arguments:

  • The item value
  • The item index
  • The array itself

Array.findIndex()

The findIndex() method returns the index of the first array element that passes a test function.

This example finds the index of the first element that is larger than 18:

Example

var numbers = [4, 9, 16, 25, 29];
var first = numbers.findIndex(myFunction);

function myFunction(value, index, array) {
  return value > 18;
}

Note that the function takes 3 arguments:

  • The item value
  • The item index
  • The array itself

New Number Methods

ES6 added 2 new methods to the Number object:

  • Number.isInteger()
  • Number.isSafeInteger()

The Number.isInteger() Method

The Number.isInteger() method returns true if the argument is an integer.

Example

Number.isInteger(10); // returns true
Number.isInteger(10.5); // returns false

The Number.isSafeInteger() Method

A safe integer is an integer that can be exactly represented as a double precision number.

The Number.isSafeInteger() method returns true if the argument is a safe integer.

Example

Number.isSafeInteger(10); // returns true
Number.isSafeInteger(12345678901234567890); // returns false

New Global Methods

ES6 also added 2 new global number methods:

  • isFinite()
  • isNan()

The isFinite() Method

The global isFinite() method returns false if the argument is Infinity or NaN.

Otherwise it returns true:

Example

isFinite(10/0); // returns false
isFinite(10/1); // returns true

The isNaN() Method

The global isNaN() method returns true if the argument is NaN. Otherwise it returns false:

Example

isNaN("Hello"); // returns true

Exponentiation Operator

The exponentiation operator (**) raises the first operand to the power of the second operand.

Example

var x = 5;
var z = x ** 2; // result is 25

x ** y produces the same result as Math.pow(x,y):

Example

var x = 5;
var z = Math.pow(x,2); // result is 25